11-1. Jefferson Document Protecting America’s Frontiers.

Significant Thomas Jefferson Document  Signed, as Secretary of State, on printed Act of  Second Congress, First Session, “begun and  held” Philadelphia, Oct. 24, 1791, approved  Mar. 28, 1792. 9½ x 16. Signed-in-type by  Jonathan Trumbull, Speaker of the House,  John Adams, Vice-Pres. of U.S. and Pres. of the  Senate, and “Go: Washington,” Pres. “An Act  supplemental to the Act for making farther and  more effectual Provision for the Protection of  the Frontiers of the United States.” “...That it  shall be lawful for the President of the United  States by and with the advice and consent of  the Senate to appoint such number of  Brigadier-Generals as may be conducive to the  good of the public service. Provided the whole  number appointed, or to be appointed shall not  exceed four.” Boldly signed by Jefferson in rich  brown, his quill lean on final two letters.  Interesting “Sandy Run” watermark.  Embracing several firsts in America’s history –  including the first-ever Congressional  investigations, the beginning of the President’s  Cabinet, and the first Brigadier Generals under  the U.S. Constitution – this Act - signed by America’s first Secretary of State - was in response  to Indian attacks and uprisings following the Revolution. In the previous decade, some 1,500  whites had been killed by Indians in Kentucky and in the Ohio River region. In 1791,  Washington raised an Army regiment under the original Act “...for the protection of the  frontiers.” In a climactic battle in November, the American forces suffered an astounding 98%  casualty rate, the most dramatic victory of Indians over Americans in any Indian war, colonial  or Federal period. News of the defeat reached Pres. Washington in Jan. 1792, setting off a  firestorm, and triggering the first-ever Congressional and Executive-branch investigations in  American history. “The President summoned a meeting of all of his department heads -  Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, Henry Knox, and Edmund Randolph - and many  consider this meeting of all of these officials together as the beginning of the United States  Cabinet. All were determined to prevent such a disaster from ever happening again, and that  the solution would be a military one. As early as Jan., Sec. of War Knox wrote that papers and  plans would be ‘laid immediately before Congress for their consideration and decision’ that  would be adequate to the occasion. This would involve significantly increasing the size of the  small U.S. Army and dispatching the units to the frontier...”--Credit: The Raab Collection. The  outcome was the Act here signed by Jefferson. So compelling was the importance of this issue  to George Washington that he referred to the underlying Act of Mar. 5 in his (draft) Annual  Address to Congress, later in 1792: “I have reason to believe that every practicable exertion  has been made to be prepared for the alternative of a continuance of the War in pursuance of  the provision made by law...I cannot dismiss the subject of Indian affairs, without recalling to  your attention, the necessity of more adequate provision, for giving energy to the laws  throughout our Interior Frontier...”--Hamilton Papers, Library of Congress. This Act’s frontier  legacy would be magnified many fold when Jefferson ascended to the Presidency. He would oversee the Louisiana Purchase and the  Lewis and Clark Expedition, in all doubling the size of the United States. It is not as widely known that the undermining of Hamilton by  Jefferson and Madison, led to the foundation of the “Democratic-Republican” Party - and to Jefferson’s resignation from the Cabinet.  Washington was so displeased that he never spoke to Jefferson again! Several hairline vertical creases from printing press, three old  parallel horizontal folds, several soft wrinkles at blank bottom, else uniform warm ivory patina, deckled three sides, clean, and very  fine. It is reported that a copy of each Act was supplied to the governors of the then-thirteen states. Only one other example of this Act  is known to us. A handsome and important document, recalling America’s early contention with volatile border issues. $28,000-  35,000

11-2. Lincoln Lifts the Death Sentence for a Confederate Spy.

Printed Union General Orders, Washington, Oct. 22, 1863, 1½ pp., 4¼ x 7, signed in ink by Asst. Adj. Gen. E.D. Townsend. Trying  “George Woolfolk, now or late of the so-called Confederate enemy of the Government, a Pvt...10th Kentucky Regt...found  secretly within the lines of the United States forces...being able to obtain information and communicate the same to the enemy.”  Woolfolk was found guilty, and sentenced “to be shot unto death....” Lincoln compassionately withdrew the punishment, finding “the  record gives no proof that the accused was a spy...,” evidently having deserted the Confederate Army. Woolfolk was ordered to take the  oath of allegiance, “giving satisfactory sureties for his future good conduct....” Trimmed at left at two old binding holes, else about fine.  Richmond had protested the sentence, sardonically inquiring if “any portion of the Confederate territory not actually occupied by your  forces is ‘within the lines of the U.S. forces’?”--Modern copy accompanies. $150-225 

11-3. Lincoln Removes Noose from a Sioux Tried for “Murders...and Outrages.”

Printed Union General Orders, Washington, May 11, 1863, 4½ x 7, 1 p., signed in ink by Asst. Adjt. Gen. E.D. Townsend. Five actions by  Pres. Lincoln, reflecting his compassion: Sgt. Charles Braffit, 5th Ohio Cav. in W. Tenn., “commuted from death by being shot, to  imprisonment for three months”; Maj. Nathan Earlywine, 4th Ind., dismissed from service by order of Pres. for converting two Army  mules to his private use; execution disapproved by Lincoln of Sioux Indian Toon-wan-wa-kin-ya-a chatka, “sentenced to be hanged, for  participation in...murders, robberies, and outrages...”; David Faribault, Jr., “a mixed-blood Sioux Indian, under condemnation at  Mankato, Minn., for alleged complicity with the late Indian outrages in that State, is pardoned by the Pres...on evidence that he acted  with the Indians under duress, and...not engaged in the massacre of women and children”; and, dismissal of Capt. John E. Wilbur, 3rd  N.H., “is approved by the President....” Binding holes at blank margin, light uniform toning, else fine. Indian content in General Orders  is infrequent. $120-160

11-4. Ford Prodded to Give Advice to Reagan.

T.L.S. of G(erald) R. Ford, on cream letterhead exquisitely steel-engraved with gold eagle, (Rancho Mirage, Calif.), Dec. 8, 1986, 6¼ x  8½. “The most recent developments in the White House are constructive. Of course I will help in any way whatsoever.” With card  bearing remarks of addressee: “I have corresponded with Pres. Ford for a few years now. These past 2 years I thought he should give  some advice to Reagan on how to run the nation. This letter is the reply to the present Iron-gate.” • With envelope, franking signature  steel-engraved in black, gold eagle on flap. All excellent. The format, signature, and condition comprise a splendid example. $275-375  (3 pcs.) 

11-5. The Shortest Letter of a Chief Justice?

T.N.S. of Wm. H. Taft, on full-size letterhead “Supreme Court of the United States,” Washington, Dec. 6, 1923, 8 x 10½. To Isaac Blaine  Stevens, Unitarian Laymen’s League, Boston. In full: “Thank you for sending me the blotters.” Purple datestamp at right margin. Light  pocket or carbon soiling of lower half, some wrinkling of blank bottom edge, else good plus, with fine signature in purple-black,  unaffected by preceding. $225-300 11-6. “Merry Christmas from Herbert Hoover.” Sheet of elegantly steel-engraved letterhead of “The Towers of the Waldorf-Astoria, New  York,” with vignette of the iconic Art Deco buildings, boldly inscribed in center in turquoise, “Merry Christmas / from / Herbert  Hoover.” Dated Nov. 20, (19)56 on verso in pencil. Graduated toning, probably from an old file folder, else very fine and strikingly  attractive. Hoover lived in the Waldorf for many years. $130-170

11-7. From F.D.R.’s Stamp Collection.

“Trans-Pacific Air Mail” cover, postmarked Guam, Feb. 8, 1937, addressed to “Hon. Franklin D. Roosevelt / President of the United  States / second term / Washington, D.C.” Horizontal pair Scott C20, at 45-degree angle to clear the lengthy typewritten return address,  “Little America in Mid-Pacific, Agana, Guam, P.T. Palting, sender.” Red handstamp on verso, “From the F.D.R. Collection Auctioned  Feb., Apr., 1946, by H.R. Harmer, Inc., N.Y.” Guam assumed great significance, both to F.D.R. and the world: developed as a naval  station, and in 1936 as a civil aviation stop, it was captured by Japan on Dec. 11, 1941. Retaken in 1944, it became Pacific headquarters  of the U.S. Navy. Corner fault of one stamp, where affixed beyond edge of cover; opened along top flap, else very good. $60-80 

11-8. Financing the Trail of Tears.

Interesting group of 9 printed documents from the Andrew Jackson administration, 22nd Congress, 1st and 2nd Sessions, 1832-33,  “Message(s) from the Pres. of the U.S.,” from Sec. of War Lew. Cass, and other resolutions and memorials. 5½ x 9, 1 to 20 pp.,  variously. A wide range of hot-button issues from the era of Old Hickory, including: “...Passage of a law for disposing of the lands of the  U.S. in tracts of forty acres...” in Indiana. • “Memorial from...Pa., That the Cherokee Indians may be protected in their rights.” •  “...Employment of Agents among the Indians for their removal.” 20 pp. With detailed charts showing amounts paid for interpreters,  large number of gun and blacksmiths, “going express,” procuring wagons, surveyors, and other expenses in relocation of Cherokee,  Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Sac, and other tribes. List of school superintendents and clergymen paid $10,000 annually “on account of  the civilization of Indians.” • “Arms manufactured at the National Armories” in 1832, 5 pp., itemizing Hall’s rifles, muskets, screw  drivers, ball screws, flint caps, arms chests, carbines repaired, ammunition flasks, bullet moulds, and more. • Pay tables of Army and  Navy personnel, from Admiral and Chaplain to sailmaker, Maj. Gen. to 2nd Lt., including number of horses and servants alloted each  rank, and respective forage and food allowances; more was spent on equine diets than on servants’. 13 pp. • Debate on tariff bill, 1833,  with premonition of civil war: “This to be superseded by one of obvious hostlity to the best interests of our country. And what is  the cause of this ruinous measure...? Is the violent clamor of South Carolina sufficient cause? Have any facts been adduced to prove  that the South is oppressed by the operation of the tariff?...” Disbound; some bright, others variously with foxing, several with  characteristic uniform mocha toning, occasional minor edge defects, else generally about very good and better. $170-220 (9 pcs.) 

11-9. Cleveland, Taft, and the Russian Threat.

Seven varied stereo views: “William Howard Taft, the 27th Pres.,” interesting pose at his desk. Keystone, 1908, text on verso. Stain,  corner crease, one image chip, else V.G. • “Grover Cleveland delivering his Inaugural Address, Mar. 4, 1893,” the title repeated below in  Spanish! Underwood & Underwood, including their El Paso address. Worn and stained, but satisfactory. • “Washington’s Home, Mount  Vernon, Va.” Griffith & Griffith, 1904. Edge gouge. • “Confederate Monument, Richmond.” “B Series.” Yellow mount. Balance V.G.: •  “Graceful gondolas on Grand Basin below Festival Hall, World’s Fair, St. Louis.” Bal. Underwood, 1904. • “Machinery Palace filled with  the wonders of modern invention...World’s Fair, St. Louis.” 1904. • “Russian armored cruiser Peresviet, bristling with guns...,” Port  Arthur, Manchuria. 1904. Blind rubs. $70-100 (7 pcs.) 

11-10. “Hurrah for Gen. Garfield!”

“Republican Campaign Song Book - 1880,” with typographically elaborate cover, “For Pres. - Genl. James A. Garfield of Ohio - For  Vice-Pres., Gen. Chester A. Arthur of N.Y. / My Country ‘tis of thee, Sweet Land of Liberty....” Published by Republican Central  Campaign Club of N.Y. 5¾ x 9¼, unpaginated but 53 lyrics, a few with music. “This Club...will be open day and night during the assist in arousing the old Fremont and Dayton spirit of patriotism that swept the State in 1856, and will do it again in  1880....” Songs include “Tenting on the Old Camp Ground,” “Still Fighting for the Union,” “The Radical Campaign Singers,” “Hurrah  for Gen. Garfield!,” and many more. The 1880 “Battle Hymn” proclaims “free religion with its treasures yet untold, And encouraging  industry - art and science, to unfold, We will see the man who labors has his pay that’s good as gold...We’ll fight against old rebel foes  with all their scheming tricks....” Mousechew at first three and last leaves, nibbles at corner of eight interior leaves, covers nearly  separated along spine, edge tears, soiling, but reflecting the enthusiasm of a voter, and generally satisfactory. Scarce. $60-80 

11-11. “...Think, talk, and live Lincoln every day.”

Four Lincoln-related pamphlets: “Lincoln Sesquicentennial, 1809-1959, Handbook of Information,” Lincoln Sesquicentennial  Commission, National Archives Building, Washington. 5¾ x 9¼, 40 pp. Lincoln chronology, and extracts from his writings and  speeches. • “Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address, Mar. 4, 1865,” Americanization Dept., V.F.W., (8) pp., c. 1940. • “Lincoln as I Saw  Him,” William A. Croffut, Colonial Press, 1943, 11 pp. Uncommon photographic pose of Lincoln on cover. An unpublished manuscript  of a friend of Lincoln. One of 50 copies. • “The Folklore Lincoln,” David Donald, bound with “Lincoln in Kansas,” Charles Arthur  Hawley, (20) + (14) pp., 1 glossy plate of Herndon. Removed from historical journal c. 1949, and laid in purple wrappers. “The Lincoln  cult is almost an American religion. It has its high priests in the form of Lincoln ‘authorities’ and its worshipers in the thousands of  ‘fans’ who think, talk, and live Lincoln every day....” • “A Poet’s Look at Lincoln,” Carl Sandburg, (12) pp. His tribute at joint session of  Congress, Feb. 12, 1959. “Privately printed as a token for Mr. Sandburg.” Azure covers, cream text. V.G. to excellent. $45-65 (5 pcs.) 

11-12. Washington: the Man and the Capitol.

Two cartes: “Copy of the original Miniature of Gen. George Washington, taken from life, at the Siege of Boston, 1775,” photographed by  J.P. Soule, 1874. Small tea-colored stain at upper left portion, not touching oval portrait, else very good. Uncommon. • Horizontal  outdoor view of the Capitol Building, a horse-drawn streetcar at the side. Extensive promotional imprint occupying all of verso:  “Franklin & Co. Opticians, 1227 Pennsylvania Ave...Spectacles, Microscopes, Opera Glasses, &c...A complete assortment of all the  Stereoscopic Views of all the Public Buildings...American Views, beautifully colored Groups...Stereoscopic Instruments, Single or  Revolving....” Tea staining of most of left mount, extending into sky at left of building, else very good. “Please keep this photograph, as  it is given away free.” $65-85 (2 pcs.) 

11-13. An Excessively Early Magnus Work.

Composite portraits of Presidents Washington through Pierce, probably issued to celebrate the latter’s inauguration, the medallions  arranged against an intricate field of olive branches and six-pointed stars. “The Presidents of our Great Republic,” “Sold by Charles  Magnus, 12 Frankfort St., N.Y.” Pierce’s likeness is largest, and captioned “...from Mar. 1853.” 6½ x 10 oblong. Printed to a somewhat  higher standard than even the best of his single-color Civil War-era work, this appears, on close scrutiny, to be steel engraved,  maintaining open detail in its darkest areas under magnification, though old sources call it stipple. Examples encountered are often  altered by later watercolor. Evidently relettered by Magnus from a prior, unattributed variant unknown to Baker. Interpretation of  Pierce’s caption predates the hundreds of varieties of Magnus’ work we have handled over the years, and approaches the earliest period  touched upon by the Smithsonian: “...About 1854 he began to advertise one of his earliest engraved products, a hundred views of  American and Canadian cities, bridges, national buildings, and monuments, as oil color prints. Thereafter he produced many prints,  song sheets and song books, stationery, maps, and finally the product in which readers will have the most interest, patriotic  envelopes...” The earliest dated item in the massive McKinstry Collection at Wintherthur contains only one  other Magnus item bearing “1853” in its text, a map of Newark, plausibly printed the following year. Long located in the neighborhood  of Currier & Ives in lower Manhattan, rumors and theories arose that they produced some of Magnus’ work as a trade printer.  Prominent water stain approximately bisecting print from about 11 to 5 o’clock, fold at blank leftmost edge with fragment lacking,  uniform ivory toning, but still good plus, entirely displayable, and desirable. Carson 732. Hart 855a. $110-140 

11-14. McKinley nears the Scene of the Crime.

Three stereoscopic views: “Pres. McKinley at his desk in the White House,” Underwood, 1898. Fine • “Pres. McKinley and his eight  chosen advisers, Cabinet Room, Executive Mansion,” by Underwood, 1900. Very good. • “The Pres. escorting Mrs. McKinley to the  grand stand, Pan American Exposition,” by James M. Davis, 1901, mocha mount. Minor blind rub, else very fine. This last image  particularly scarce – and intriguing: close examination with a loupe leads to endless speculation on who is in the crowd, most of their  backs to the camera; his assassin had considered shooting during the speech, but was unconfident of his aim. The next day the shots  that heralded the tumultuous Twentieth Century rang out. $75-100 (3 pcs.) 

11-15. Teddy Roosevelt in Stereo.

Three stereoscopic views: “Gov. Roosevelt, Col. of famous ‘Rough Riders’ in Dewey Parade, N.Y.,” American Stereoscopic Co., 1899.  Very fine. • “Pres. Roosevelt signing an Important Bill - President’s Office, White House...,” Keystone, taken 1903, issued 1906. Lengthy  text on verso. Very fine. • In color, “Pres. Roosevelt’s Inauguration, Mar. 4, 1905 - Taking the Oath of Office,” Ingersoll, c. 1905. Text on  verso. Some creases, else good and suitable for display. $50-70 (3 pcs.) 

11-16. The Menace of Dog River Bar.

Group of 9 printed documents from the Franklin Pierce administration, 33rd Congress, 1853-55, “Message(s) from the Pres. of the  U.S.,” Letter from Sec. of Treasury, and other items. 5½ x 9, 1 to 7 pp., variously. Including: Construction of new “appraiser’s store” in  California, to replace small building being rented. This structure was probably used to assess gold and other valuables. • Memorial  (petition) of University of the Pacific, Santa Clara, Calif., seeking land to enlarge school, having completed buildings for “female dept.”  and “male dept.” • Memorial of Legislature of Wis., on “the homestead bill and donations of land for rail-roads...that the vast numbers  of our fellow-citizens, who are now compelled to surrender their labor to capital for a mere subsistence, may speedily find a home on  the great domain of our nation....” • Resolutions of Legislature of Ala., on improvements of Mobile harbor, 7 pp. “...An evil of great  magnitude...a grievous tax upon the producing and consuming interests of those portions of Ala. and Miss. using this harbor... It is a  frequent subject of complaint...that Mobile cotton arrives abroad often divested of its casing, the bagging being rotted off...the cotton  bare and damaged. The consequence is natural and injurious....” Describing ships’ avoidance of Mobile in favor of Pensacola, because of  obstacle of Dog River bar; if a channel is built, “the federal and commercial capitals of the Union will soon be communicate  with the extremest sections of the country....” • Statement from “the Executive of Oregon” listing money spent “for benefit of the  Territory.” • Messages from Pres. Pierce on “Cherokee Indians - Payment of Interest” (in duplicate), Wyandott Indians, and pay of  Indian agents, including those in Calif., each signed-in-type by Indian Affairs Commissioner Geo. Manypenny. Some characteristic  foxing and toning, occasional minor edge defects, else generally about very good and better. $130-170 (9 pcs.) 

11-17. “The most stupendous fraud ever perpetrated since the beginning of the world.”

Group of 7 printed documents from the James Buchanan administration, 35th Congress, 1st Session, 1858, Letter from Sec. of Interior,  and other items. 5½ x 9, 2 to 24 pp., variously. Including: Request for $30,000 for Census of Minn. Territory, with report of U.S.  Marshal in St. Paul. “Persons of mixed white and Indian blood, and persons of Indian blood who have adopted the customs and habits  of civilization, are permitted to enjoy the rights of citizenship...The difficulty in securing the services of persons competent to perform  the duties, the high price of horse hire...makes this estimate much larger than it probably would be in an old State....” Listing names of  censustakers, counties, number of inhabitants (Nobles County boasted only 16 residents), and costs, including $75.04 for postage - for  all of Minnesota. • “Geological Survey of Ore. and Washington connection with explorations for a railroad route to the  Pacific....” Revealing discovery of “true gold-bearing regions” in both territories, plus platinum ore and “valuable rocks.” (In duplicate.)  • “Public Property in Calif...claimed ...under alleged grants from Mexico, which are believed to be mere fabrications. These grants  cover... some of the richest mines in the world, (and) the whole cities of San Francisco and Sacramento...The right of the all this  property...has been in extreme jeopardy and is yet in much peril. The pretended grants from Mexico have been forged with skill as well  as boldness unequalled in the history of such the most stupendous fraud ever perpetrated since the beginning of  the world...There is no authority to employ even a clerk...To remedy this evil, it will be necessary to authorize the district attorney to  contract with the necessary number of clerks....” Stating that Edwin F. Stanton is now employed in exposing these frauds. • “Estimate  for Surveying Public Lands and Private Land Claims in Calif.” • Report seeking “reduction of the expenditures of the government...,” 24  pp. Fascinating and timely discussion of the evils of the system of taxation - in antebellum America. “The only to change the  existing system of taxation...To make an individual a prodigal, you have only to supply him with an unlimited amount of money; to  make a government extravagant, you have only to do the same...The protective policy carried out to its legitimate conclusion would  be...inauguration of the Japanese policy...Free trade allays sectional agitation....” • “Minnesota Election Case,” 16 pp., with unusual  discussion of a contested election on the precipice of Minnesota’s admission as a State. Minor foxing and toning, occasional minor edge  defects, else generally fine and better. $140-180 (7 pcs.) 

11-18. “Striking the shackles from millions....”

“Abraham Lincoln - A Memorial Address, Delivered by Hon. Leonard Myers, June 15, 1865, before the Union League of 13th Ward,”  Philadelphia, 5½ x 9¼, 15 pp., turquoise wrappers. A masterful sweep of language, capturing the grandeur and glory of Lincoln. “...The  past four years have been years of sad realities, of almost incredible romance, too. The stride of a century was not expected to do so  much. More history has been crowded into them than will be told in tenfold their time...It has become fashionable to say that Abraham  Lincoln was elevated from comparative obscurity to fill the Presidential chair. Such, however, is not the fact...The spoiled children of  wealth may fill the chief places in other countries; but...those carved highest on the rock will often be found to have reached the  elevation by just such struggles as his...The slave was liberated and the black man allowed to fight...He issued the great  Proclamation...striking the shackles from millions of human beings, breaking the bonds of slavery at a blow....” Old half fold, some  handling evidence and cover foxing, else very good. Very scarce. Monaghan 642. $80-110

11-19. Cincinnati’s Founder - and his Hollow Earth Theory.

Group of 5 printed documents from the Millard Fillmore administration, 32nd Congress, 1st Session, 1852, Letter from Sec. of Interior,  and other items. 5½ x 9, 1 to 27 pp., variously. Including: “Unsold Lands at Symmes’ Purchase,” 27 pp., dissecting a fascinating but  immensely complicated dispute over a fragment of property of John Cleves Symmes, founder of Cincinnati - and Hollow Earth believer.  Tracing the matter back to 1792, “the administration of Pres. Washington was not culpable of the negligence and folly of conveying to  J.C. Symmes and his associates 311,682 acres...No law has made it the duty of any...person to keep a public perpetuam...of  the words uttered by the auctioneers...and not sold for want of bidders... The city of Cincinnati had not any right of pre-emption, in the  year 1845, to fractional section no. 11....” This elaborate legal presentation was written by future Union Gen. J.J. Crittenden, namesake  of 1860’s Crittenden Compromise, which proposed extension of the Missouri Compromise to the Pacific, but rejected by both sides,  further fueling the road to war. • “Chickasaw Indians and Arkansas Bonds.” • “Omaha Indians,” showing expenses of Indian delegation  to visit Washington from Council Bluffs, to discuss “the growing difficulties between the white and red neighbors.” Including “four  months’ victualling on the way,” blankets, one month’s board, interpreter, and medical attendance: “The Indians are much inclined  here to sickness, and a very heavy expense is daily incurred.” • “Oregon - Gov. Gaines,” 8 pp., on selection of locations for public  buildings in Oregon Territory. • “Apportionment of Representatives,” citing 1850 Census provision to count the number of free persons,  “and excluding Indians not taxed, 3/5s of all other persons...rejecting any fraction of a unit....” Results were still being received some  two years later; the counts were leading to a dispute of whether S.C. should have five or six Members of Congress. • “Iowa Northern  Boundary,” its determination “an important objection for all future time.” Latter with tears at bottom margin, else items with some  light toning, and fine and better. Symmes had earlier theorized that the Earth was a hollow shell, with openings at the poles. His  proposed expedition to the North Pole was approved by Pres. John Quincy Adams, but his term ended before it took flight. Symmes-  related material is desirable. $90-130 (5 pcs.) 

11-20. Doctor Big Deer – and “a tribe once warlike and powerful.”

Substantial group of 27 printed documents from the James Polk administration, with much Indian and Indiana content. 29th Congress,  1st and 2nd Sessions, 1845-47, memorials, petitions, and other items. 5½ x 9, 1 to 20 pp., but many single p. Some signed-in-type by  Missouri House Speaker Sterling Price, later a much-traveled Confederate Gen., whose postwar plans in Mexico collapsed. Including:  “St. Francis and Big Black Rivers,” Mo. • “Missouri - Improvement of Swamps.” “On account of this swamp, a great portion of our  citizens and those of Ark. can have no communication with the Mississippi river....” • “...For draining the Great swamp” in Mo. and Ark.  • Report on the Cherokee Treaty of 1835-36, 20 pp. “I know of no law by which the practice of charging exorbitant fees for services as  attorneys for Indians can be prevented...Balances due to Cherokee emigrants, payable west of the Mississippi, have been  suspended...on account of the insufficiency of the documents...Whatever balances are due to the Cherokees in N.C. will be paid to  them...So far as the Indians who remain are concerned...their connection with the general government is dissolved....” • “Canal around  the Falls in the Ohio River,” Jeffersonville, Ind., and “proposed route for a canal on the Indiana shore.” • “Extinguishment of Indian  Titles,” Wis. Terr. “The rapidity of settlement of the lands bordering on...Fox river...demands the early extinguishment of the Indian  title to all the lands....” • “Bridge across the Ohio River at Wheeling.” • Increasing pay of Ohio soldiers in Mexican War. • Claim of  Indiana veteran of Revolution against state of Virginia, “for advances made to troops under command of Capt. George Rogers Clark, in  what was called the Illinois campaign...1778-79....” • “Pre-Emption Settlers on the Miami Reserve,” Indiana. • Dramatic Memorial of  Stockbridge Indians of Wis. Territory, seeking “relief for the wrongs which have been so unjustly inflicted upon them and their people,”  citing “two or three ignorant and troublesome white men” who have been trying to force them to become citizens. An excessive tax was  levied; when the Indians could not pay, their cattle and farming utensils were seized and sold at auction. Petitioners “are satisfied that  their natures and dispositions can no more be changed, than can their skins be made white....” • Indiana Resolution on land “for the  insane, the blind, and deaf and dumb.” • Call for daily mail service in Ind., as “an increasing and prosperous trade is rapidly growing up  between the Wabash valley and the city of N.Y....” • Numerous other Indiana printed documents, of local history interest. Varying from  fresh to mocha toning, some minor edge defects, else generally very good and better. $200-300 (27 pcs.)  An Intact Cache of Lincoln-related Legal Documents - With a Panorama of Lincoln’s Early Milieu

11-21. From Lincoln’s Prairie Years.

Cohesive suite of legal documents actually used as exhibits in a courtroom  saga involving Abraham Lincoln, Stephen A. Douglas, Joshua Speed,  William F. Elkin of the “Long Nine,” and other Sangamon County pioneers  and personalities, from the nascent period of Lincoln’s career as a prairie  lawyer. 1838-42. The penultimate document in the series with splendid  Lincoln signature, in his early style, as appraiser chosen by the losing  party, sometime-antagonist and colorful personality William L. May.  Apparently comprising the surviving case file of plaintiff’s attorney Jesse  B. Thomas, a judge and political opponent of Lincoln. Comprising a  fascinating assemblage of characters from Lincoln’s politically formative  years: • D.S. of William L. May, Springfield, Ill., Aug. 29, 1838. 6 x 7¾.  Promissary note for $6,000, “to the President, Directors and Company of  the State Bank of the rate of 10 per centum....” Short breaks at  folds, else fine. • D.S. of S(tephen) A. Douglass (before he dropped the  second “s” from his name), S(amuel) H. Treat, N.S. Williamson (Mayor of  Wilmington, Dela.), Sangamon County Recorder Benjamin Talbott (signed  twice), and William L. and Caroline May, dated Springfield, Aug. 29-Dec.  3, 1838, 7¾ x 9¾, 10 pp., bound at top with original wax button. Mortgage  deed of conveyance to the Mays, for $6,000, for over 3,000 acres in  multiple parcels in Logan and Sangamon Counties, “the true and lawful  owners” the State Bank of Illinois. Caroline May’s signature was notarized  in Delaware in Nov. of that year. Very weak at two horizontal folds, with  eight panels cleanly separated but easily reconstructable; else darkly  penned on cream, Douglass’ signature especially prominent and rich, and  otherwise about very good. • A.D.S. of State Bank of Illinois’ attorney Jesse  B. Thomas, Sangamon Circuit Court, Aug. 13, 1841, 7½ x 11½, 2 pp.  Naming all fourteen defendants, including the Mays and Joshua Speed,  and stating that they “do not reside within the State of Illinois.” Also  signed twice “per James H. Matheny, dep(uty)” on behalf of Court Clerk M. Eastman. Breaks but no separations at folds, else fine.  Thomas by this time had become “a target of Lincoln’s withering scorn,” actually reduced to tears at the Sangamon County courthouse  when Lincoln mimicked his voice and gestures mercilessly.--Lincoln’s Preparation for Greatness: The Illinois Legislative Years, Simon,  p. 219. Matheny was Lincoln’s best man at his wedding to Mary Todd, and close personal friend. • Partly printed bill of complaint to  Judge Samuel H. Treat, Circuit Court, Sangamon County, filed Aug. 15, 1841, 7½ x 12, 8 pp., bound with pale green silk ribbon. Suit  against William L. and Caroline May, by State Bank of Illinois. Lengthy passage in hand of Jesse B. Thomas, counsel for Bank. “Humbly  complaining...that on the 29th day of Aug. 1838, William L. May...became and was unjustly indebted unto your orators, for so much  money before that time... in the sum of $6,000....” Defendants also include Edward D. Baker (a Congressman and close friend of  Lincoln), Timothy M. Bryan, John Rodman, Josiah Heylin, Charles Harkness, Samuel Townsend, John Fairburn, John Stokes, Ezekiel  Hunn, William K. Fleming, Joshua F. Speed, and Timothy Childs. Interest in the land had been conveyed to Speed and Child  subsequent to mortgage. Speed became Lincoln’s best friend, having met at his general store in Springfield, where he shared quarters  with Lincoln. Variously broken, chipped, and separated at horizontal folds, from the document’s intensive use at trial, light loss of text,  tape repairs made c. 1960s, some toning and other wear, but still satisfactory, and a key part of the narrative presented here. • Partly  printed summons to Sheriff of Sangamon County, Springfield, Oct. 11, 1841, 7½ x 12½. For appearance of William L. and Caroline  May, and the other twelve parties listed above, including Joshua Speed. Signed by Sheriff Wm. F. Elkin, and Clerk M. Eastman “per  James H. Matheny....” Docketing with sheriff’s bill: “...Fee service $2, 4 copies $2, Travel 25¢, Return 12½¢.” Broken but not separated  at folds, uniform toning, else fine. Elkin was, with Lincoln, one of the fabled “Long Nine,” the tall legislators who succeeded in moving  the capital of Illinois from Vandalia to Springfield. • Sheet bearing clipping of legal notice from newspaper, with manuscript statement  of publishers Walters & Weber, Springfield, Nov. 15, (18)41, 5½ x 7½. “We certify that the annexed notice was published in the Illinois  State Register four successive weeks....” On verso, “Filed Nov. 19, 1841 / M. Eastman” (Court Clerk). Lacking fragment of evidently  blank lower margin, else very good. • D.S. “A. Lincoln,” at conclusion of 7 pp. decree, his signature on outside filing leaf, rendering it  highly suitable for display. Feb. 19, 1842, 7¾ x 12¾, bound with three wax buttons. “We the appraisers, to wit the undersigned John  Constant, chosen by the said plaintiff [Bank], Abraham Lincoln, chosen by the defendants [May et al] and Phillip C. Latham, chosen by  the value the property set forth in the within decree having reference to its cash value at the sum of $3.50 per  acre....” Lincoln’s signature lies between Constant’s and Latham’s, a somewhat soiled fold just passing through Latham’s ascenders,  with a short pale file smudge just touching part of Lincoln’s. Marked (Exhibit) “A” at top. Brittle at folds but essentially sound,  signature leaf with uniform toning from handling, else Lincoln’s signature dark and very good. See illustration, also on website in color.  • Manuscript draft of bill to foreclose in favor of Bank, likely in the hand of their attorney Jesse B. Thomas, 7¾ x 12¾, n.p., n.d. but  apparently the final document in the case file, 3 pp. “And now at this day, come again the said complainants, by _ their Solicitor, and  the said defendants having failed to appointed a Special Commissioner of this Court, to sell and convey the aforesaid  mortgaged premises....” With blank spaces for amounts to be paid, names, and dates. Broken and separated at some folds, old tape  repair, light edge toning, else darkly penned and very good. When this case began in 1838, Lincoln had been practicing law for just  under two years. The year of the document here bearing his signature, 1842, was a fruitful one for Lincoln, seeing resumption of his  courtship with Mary Todd, their marriage, his admission before the U.S. District Court, and acceptance of challenge to a duel with  swords, with a Democratic state auditor who Lincoln - writing as “Rebecca” - had lampooned in letters to a newspaper. (The clash was  averted.) The background of defendant William May could, for just a fleeting moment, make one raise an eyebrow at Honest Abe’s  moniker. A wizened old-time Illinois politician, May had been Congressman from 1834-39, but was toppled by Douglas. Lincoln also  debated May, who asked that his habit of changing party alliances not be mentioned. Earlier Pres. Jackson’s receiver of public money  for the U.S. Land Office in Springfield, May was Mayor of Springfield at the time that this lawsuit was collapsing around him, in 1841!  “‘A greater compound of meanness and stupidity was never mingled,’ said one [May] critic in 1834...”--An Oral History of Abraham  Lincoln: John G. Nicolay’s Interviews and Essays, Burlingame, ed., p. 133. Lincoln’s appraisal of the land, generously in excess of May’s  defaulted amount, may have been tailored to achieve the least painful outcome for his client. Indeed, the modern work, Wicked  Springfield: Crime, Corruption & Scandal during the Lincoln Era – “much of it at the hands of Lincoln’s law clients and acquaintances”  according to author Erika Holst – offers “the true stories that fed those depraved appetites...drawn from the newspapers Lincoln read  and the docket where he practiced law. In these pages, discover the wicked side of Lincoln’s Springfield.” The preservation of the  timeline in this case, and its underpinning of personalities - with Douglas at the beginning, and his nemesis Lincoln at its end - makes  it a significant ensemble. At the time, it would have seemed far-fetched that twenty years later, two of the local attorneys toiling at  opposite ends of this case would become the top combatants in the most important Presidential contest of the century. Further, the  actual use of the documents as courtroom exhibits, including the lengthy document bearing Lincoln’s signature, provide wonderful  context. The group’s interest is additionally heightened by the sometimes intense juxtaposition of so many of Lincoln’s legal and social  colleagues from his prairie years, including Samuel Treat, Jesse Thomas, Joshua Speed, James Matheny – and the unfortunate William  May. A search of the Library of Congress’ Lincoln manuscripts finds only one item from this year, 1842 (a slightly later unsigned  document of December, a portion of which “appears to be in Lincoln’s hand.”) The offered group was acquired by the consignor at the  old Parke-Bernet Galleries, Madison Avenue, antecedent of Sotheby’s, and has remained unbroken and off the market for about forty  years. Single Lincoln items of this formative period are now elusive; a cache such as this, with its rich tapestry of Lincoln lore and  Americana, is now rare on the market. $10,000-14,000 (8 pcs.)  

Go to Section 12: Transportation

Jefferson Document Protecting Americaís Frontiers. From Lincolnís Prairie Years.
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